Cardiovascular Endurance

The best practices necessary for keeping up cardiovascular endurance are relevant to the overall nature of an individual’s performance outcomes and goals. There are certain elements of stagnation that can limit improvement to cardio related endurance. However, diminishing returns can be mitigated through practice, dedication and proper techniques. In this review of sports and exercise medicine, strengthening and conditioning aspects of human kinetics will be explored in theory and practice.

Physical activity has been established through sports medicine research and science to provide a key indicator and component of good health and cardiovascular strength. There have been hypothesis regarding the beneficence towards those engaging in a sedentary lifestyle when cardiovascular activity is introduced into their regimen. Evidence from an eight-week stair climbing work out plan created multiple events of short yet vigorous physical activity for participants. The participants in this study were primarily sedentary women who engaged in limited physical activity prior to the study. Stair climbing was found to improve cardiovascular endurance and respiratory fitness. This increased cardiovascular fitness contributes to a heightened sense of well-being as well as a reduction in risks of mortality. This further provides evidence for the benefits of short bought of rigorous physical activity towards creating better endurance as well as limiting the factors of cardiovascular health risks (Boreham et al, 2005).

Overall there are several strategic that will promote well-being and good cardiovascular health. Walking and vigorous exercise are some ways that people can prevent heard disease and create a sustained elevation of heart rate. One investigation identified the benefits in risk reduction for women through moderate and vigorous forms of activity. These include sports, jogging, bicycling and walking through heavy housework or gardening. Results indicated that the risk of coronary problems was inversely related to the hours per week of moderate or vigorous activity performed by female subjects (Manson et al., 199). This information indicates that activities promoting cardiovascular endurance through sustained physical activity are beneficial towards increasing heart health amongst women as well as in deterring the prevalence of disproportionate cardiovascular detriments.

Exercise programs have a number of benefits towards dynamic function of exercise as well as in resistance training and muscular adaptation. These programs facilitate the development and maintenance of comprehensive physical programs while facilitating rehabilitation for those with diminished health initially. Aerobic endurance exercises can promote physical fitness as well while reducing health-related risk factors. This is similar to resistance training while the later indicates greater development of muscle mass and endurance. These factors are tangentially related to cardiovascular health by promoting independence and help to maintain basal metabolic rates. Such evidence is prominent amongst the elderly who may benefit from a combination of lower and upper body exercises (Pollock et al., 2000).

Cardiac patients are more susceptible to diminished health in the absence of workout regiments that address endurance. In these events it is possible to understand the prevention and management of chronic conditions that may impair physical function through the introduction of training and strength building regiments. Resistance training is most beneficial as an adjunct exercise-based initiative for cardiovascular rehabilitation. These exercises allow for a greater muscle strength and increased heart rate and blood pressure response. Strength training creates better muscular endurance or improvement and is characterized by an increase in each patient’s ability to provide cardiovascular endurance through training (Pollock et al., 2000).  In these ways improvements are not based on aerobic function alone, yet can be identified through muscular strength training in subtle and consistent ways.

Another consistent way that physiological responses can be monitored in terms of increasing heart strength is the prevalence and practice of aerobic exercise. This creates a greater amount of oxygen consumption as well as increased heart rates. It is found that benefits expand towards diastolic blood pressure through a widening of the pulse pressure. Oxygen extraction widens and aerobic exercises create volume load on the myocardium. This is contingent to benefits of isometric exertion. This process creates sustained contractions of muscles and works against a load or resistance. Heart rate and blood pressure responses are related to the way that tension is exerted and the quality of absolute tension development. In these ways, isometric and combined or dynamic resistance exercise is discouraged amongst patients suffering from coronary disease (Pollock et al., 2000). It is an example of ineffective strategies that may lead to further maladies or disproportionate heart conditions.

Much of this is related to a concern for safety through resistance training. Investigations involve healthy adults and diminished low-risk cardiac patients. This is a specific function of patients who are already diagnosed with and have limited function due to low endurance of cardiovascular and cardio respiratory tendencies. Application of training and testing amongst these patients finds that adding physical conditions regiments can change the methods of practice of lower and upper body resistance regimens. Depending on the duration, intensity of strength training and endurance the prospective results vary. However, all studies indicate improvements to endurance and overall muscular strength (Pollock et al., 2000). These demonstrate the value of strength training and endurance in terms of cultivating lasting changes to cardiovascular health.

An article in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research indicates differences in hormonal responses between exercise and types of training. There are significant benefits towards the increase of testosterone and cortical levels regardless of aerobic or strength training being conducted first. This is an indicator of the overall value that cardiovascular performance has in creating lasting changes in cardiovascular endurance. Participants performed two sessions and were able to document three sets of eight reps in a bench press, squat machine, lateral pull down and knee extension. Aerobic training involved thirty minutes of cycling on a fixed bike as well. Participants in this study had hormonal levels measured at three points during the study. This included before their training session, during and after. Certain groups conducted cardiovascular aerobic exercise first, while the other groups performed strength training first. The practice of these activities not only creates significant progress in individual heart health, but also creates lasting increases in hormonal levels that can create beneficence regardless of the training sessions and routines (Barnett, 2015).

In conclusion there are a variety of health related risks that can be mitigated through continued and intermittent practice of physical activity. Depending on the level of rigor, frequency and overall health status of the individual these health benefits will be different. However, the overall results will be indicative of better heart health and lessened cardiovascular problems. As demonstrated through this review of sports medicine, and varying studies of human kinetics and exercise, there are many solutions that an individual can choose from in order to influence their cardiovascular health and benefit their body’s health system. Since the choices of sedentary individuals will also have implications to their overall health it is interesting to note that subtle or short term activities can have significant beneficence even when not completed in a regular regimen.

References

Barnett, J. (2015). Science Takes a Look: Cardio First or Strength First?Breaking Muscle. Retrieved 3 March 2015, from http://breakingmuscle.com/strength-conditioning/science-takes-a-look-cardio-first-or-strength-first

Boreham, C. (2005). Training effects of short bouts of stair climbing on cardiorespiratory fitness, blood lipids, and homocysteine in sedentary young women. British Journal Of Sports Medicine39(9), 590-593. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2002.001131

Manson, J. E., Hu, F. B., Rich-Edwards, J. W., Colditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., … & Hennekens, C. H. (1999). A prospective study of walking as compared with vigorous exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease in women. New England Journal of Medicine341(9), 650-658.

Pollock, M. L., Franklin, B. A., Balady, G. J., Chaitman, B. L., Fleg, J. L., Fletcher, B., … & Bazzarre, T. (2000). Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease benefits, rationale, safety, and prescription an advisory from the committee on exercise, rehabilitation, and prevention, council on clinical cardiology, American Heart Association. Circulation101(7), 828-833.

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